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"^ ^ :l^9^. 

illBM lililii 

By Post for Two St.amps. 









Wareliouses, 4, Grresliam Street, City London, 

& 7, Higli Street, Manchester ; 
Manufactory, Studley Mills, Nr. BromsgroYe. 

The principal processes now exhibiting in the 
Machinery Department of the International Ex- 
hibition, Class 7 B., & Crystal Palace Sydenham, 








Michael T. Moeraxl, 7, High-st., M.axchestee, 
Balmokal House, Matlock. 





In presenting the Third Edition of this little 
work to the public, it gives me great pleasure to 
state, that the History and Description of Needle 
Making, on its first appearance in 1862, was 
kindly noticed by the press, and well received by 
the Needle Makers ; many of them having expres- 
sed to me their satisfaction and surprise that I had 
procured so much information, as no history of 
needle making had ever before been published. 
Descriptions of the processes have attimes appeared 
in the magazines, but the writers who visited the 
manufactories at Redditch, treated the subject 
more as a puff for the manufacturers who enter- 
tained them, so that very little was known to the 
public respecting it, pre\TLOus to the Great Exhi- 
bition of 1851. The ofiicial description on Abel 
Morrall's case, in Class 22, gave but little in- 
formation, as it was very defective ; it has been 
amended and forms part of this work. The cases 
of needles shewn in the Exhibition were not much 
noticed, but visitors were most anxious to see 
needles made by Abel Morrall's machinery in Class 
6 ; and many notices of needle making appeared 
in the news-papers diu-ing the time of the Ex- 
hibition, which has brought the trade prominently 
before the public . The fi-equent applications from 


persons connected with the press, for a history of 
the art, was one reason that induced me to compile 
the history of needle making. 

This useful branch of manufacture has been the 
staple trade of Studley, my natiye "sdUage, fi'om 
time immemorial, and my family are engaged in 
the business, and haye been for at least six gener- 
ations, and haye introduced most of the impvoye- 
ments that have been effected in the modern needle 
— one of the most useful implements of the world. 

It is indeed an important little article; and before 
^yriting its histoiy, I visited the places in England 
where needles are made. At Long Crendon, in Buck- 
inghamshire, I was grayely informed that Solomon 
Shi'impton, a native of that ^-illage, fii-st introduced 
needle making into the neighbourhood of Redditch 
at the begimiing of the present centurj\ I answered 
my informant, that such tales would not do for a 
history of needle making, as it is well known, that 
needles were made in that locality, long before any 
needle maker came there from Long Crendon ; as 
I remember an old man called George Wigget 
a natiye of Studley, who was near one hundred years 
old : this old man could give no infonnation as to 
the introduction of needle making, but said when he 
first went out to work, it was to tm-n Alcock's mill 
at Samboume, near Studley, used for pointing and 
scoiu'ing needles, and that in his day, Studley was 
the principle place for needle making. Ha\ing 


examined records and considted the oldest needle 
makers, I find the old man's testimony to be worthy 
of credit. In following this interesting reseai'ch 
through past ages, it is found the trade becomes 
gradually smaller, and at last is obscured in cer- 
tain families at Studley and Alcester. 
I have traced this useful art between Studley, Al- 
cester, Redditch, London, Long Crendon, Chester, 
and other places,and have gathered up the fragments 
of its history to compose this little work. The fii-si 
Edition came in useful for the Reporters at the 
Dublin Exhibition, the second Edition came out in 
1 854, iu time for the opening of the Ciystal Palace, 
at Sydenham, and which contains many facts not 
recorded in the first, and in this present Edition 
will be found new facts and interesting matter, 
obtained from various sources although the author- 
ities are not always stated; my object having been 
to collect facts which may prove useful at some fu- 
ture time. I hope the Reporters will find this 
equally beneficial at the International Exhibition 
of 1862. 


7, High Street, Manchester, 

\7 9 

Needles in tlieii* different 
stages of manufactui-e, see 































































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1— ( 






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Chapter I. 
High up in the Lebanon nestling amongst the mul- 
bery trees, stands a Adllage called Eden, believed 
by many people in the land, to be the first home of 
Adam and Eve, where the first sewing was ever done, 
when as we are informed "they sewed fig leaves toge- 
ther to make themselves aprons. ' ' How true to Nature 
is this, for do we not remember how in very early life; 
we fastened together leaves for our adornment, with 
thorns gathered fi-omthe May Bush, little thinking that 
the same thing had been done ages before in Eden, and 
that the most gorgeous dress originated in a fig leaf. 

How simple then appears the origin of needles ; if as 
is supposed they were first made out of thorns. Our 
Sacred records state that Tubal Cain worked in iron and 
brass ; and that one of the rivers running out of Eden 
contained gold which was pronounced good: we may 
infer that the gold was good for the making of useful and 
ornamental articles ; and at that early date there may 
have been needles made of gold, as also of iron or brass. 
In Dr. Abbott's Museum, at Cairo, is a wood needle of 
extremely old date, togetherwithapieceof sewing, taken 
out of the tomb of an Egyptian lady. At the Dublin 
Exhibition there was a collection of bone and bronze 
needles, foimd in Ireland and Denmark. In the City 
Museum London, there are some specimens of old Bri- 
tish needles. In this country formerly, the upper clas- 
ses used gold and silver needles, and some estates were 
held by the annual payment of one or two of these 
costly articles. 

There is a custom observed yearly, at Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, when the Bursar gives to every mem- 
ber a needle and thread, in remembrance of the founder, 
whose name being Egglesfield, was deduced from two 
French words, Aguille Fit : a needle and thread 

Hemy Y, when Prince of "Wales, was a student in 
this College, and "He came into liis father's presence 
in a strange disguise, being in a garment of blue satin, 
■ftTOught fuU of eyelet holes, and at every eyelet the 


needle left hanging by the silk it -was Tn-oiiglit with." 
The habit of a scholar was so very different from that 
of a soldier in those days, that notliing coiild better 
allay the kings suspicions than this silent declaration 
of attachnientto literature andrennnciationof the sword. 
{Speed's Chronicle.) 

We know an ola Scotch woman who says in her 
younger days she darned her stockings with a wood 
needle. There are at this day Indian women, who sew 
with needles of porcupine quill, and thread made of the 
sinews of the deer. There are the fish-bone, that the 
Greenlanders and the South Sea Islanders use ; the wo- 
men of one race sitting in their snow burrows stitching 
by the light of theii- oil lamps ; and the women of the 
other race wearing while at work, a great palm leaf on 
their heads for shade, and cooling themselves occasion- 
ally by a SMom in the calm waters, within the coral 
reef ; the Chinese claim to have made steel needles from 
a remote period, we have seen some good needles that 
were made in that Empire. A correspondent writing 
from Shanghai, says, at Ningpo there is a needle man- 
ufactory, where you may see men grinding long steel 
bars to the necessary fineness, by rubbing them with 
theii- hands upon a stone, then notcliing them at the 
requii-ed lengths, breaking them off" and filing the points, 
while little boys take up the wondrous tale and punch 
the eye in each individual needle. 

Chapter II. 

The Spaniards are said to be the inventors of 
steel needles in Eiu-ope, and to have taught the Ger- 
mans the art of making them ; and it was from these 
countries that we derived our supplies of steel needles, 
until a sufficient quantity were made at home. Little 
is known of the history of many of our useful arts be- 
fore the Eeformation, the records of the Monasteries, 
&c., having been destroyed, or dispersed at the disso- 
lution of religious houses ; and it is only by the perse- 
verance of the learned tailor Stowe, (who spent his life 
in gathering up the scattered records,) that we have 
any information ; and when Stowe became old and 


poor, the king granted Mm ''Letters Patent," to beg 
ii'omourloYirig subjects in the churches, for one year, 
and so little were his labours appreciated, that the alms 
were scarcely worth collecting, so the king graciously 
allowed him to beg a little longer, hoping thereby he 
might be better remunerated. 

If we had the records of the Augustine Priory, at 
Studley, they would perhaps enlighten us about needle 
making in that parish, which is probably the original 
place in England, where this branch of industry arose. 
A general idea prevails, that needles have always been 
made here, and the inhabitf.nts cannot conceive a time 
when there were no needles made in their \illage. 

The oldest needle making families are Eawlins and 
Blimdell. The Morralls are descended from the for- 
mer family, in the female line. There is a tradition 
which is supported by the Roll of Battel Abbey, tliat 
these fa>nilies originally came from Normandy ; A 
needle manufacturer, on a visit at Studley, from Nor- 
mandy, recognised the Morralls, there being a family 
named, de Morall in the part he came from. Needles 
W'cjre at an early period made in 'SVales ; vre have not 
produced the date of its introduction, and can only 
state that needles continued to be made at "Welsh Wen- 
lock, until about the year 1790, the Welsh needle 
makers have followed the trade into War^\ickshire. 

The earliest record of needle making in London is in 
the year 1545, during the reign of Henry YIIL, and the 
most general idea is, that tliis useful branch of industry 
was introduced by a Moor from Spain, who also, it is 
said, about the year 1563, commenced the making of 
his own wire, which gave him the pre-eminence over the 
needle makers in the other parts of the kingdom, who 
had to import theii's from Spain and Germany. 

Stowe, in his chronicles states, that when the first 
Q,ueen Mary reigned, needles were sold in Cheapside 
and some other busy streets of London, and that they 
were at that time made hja Spanish Negro, who refused 
to disclose the secrets of his art. How long the Moor 
enjoyed his exclusive privileges Stowe does not state. 
Another author, taking up the tliread of the narrative, 


states that the art was lost at the NegTo's death, but was 
soon after recoTered by one Elias Karuse, a Grerman, 
and other skilled workmen who came over from France, 
Flanders, and Germany, during^ the reign of Elizabeth, 
and thus the trade was re-established in London, and 
the sale of needles greatlyextendedthi'oughout England, 
Wales, and Ireland ; the importation iDecoming every 
year smaller, ujitU it entii-ely ceased, and exportation 
commenced. It may be mentioned here, as a curious 
incident, that soon after the execution of King Charles, 
Cromwell' s government resolved to apprentice Elizabeth 
Stuart, the second daughter of the late king, to a needle 
maker ;* but from the time the princess was made ac- 
quainted with the government's intentions, her spirits 
became depressed, her health declined, and her demise 
in 1650, prevented this cruel and tyrannical resolution 
being carried into effect. 

It appears that this b^ade was commenced at Long 
Crendon, in Buckinghamshire, by one Christopher 
Greening, who, with his wife andthi'ee children, settled 
in that pretty village about the year 1650, having been 
brought there by the iniiuence of a family named Da- 
rner, who took an interest in that locality. Is'o mention 
is made of the place where the Grreenings came from ; 
perhaps they were Londoners, Long Crendon being near- 
er the metropolis than to Studley ; and we may infer that 
the London needle makers were a considerable body at 
this time, from the fact of their being incorporated by 
Charter only six years later, namely, on the tenth day of 
November, one thousand six hundred and fifty-six, the 
8th. of Charles II., (commonly called Cromwell's time.) 

The trade at Long Crendon possesses some distinctive 
characteristics, the smaller lands of needles used for 
domestic work do not appear ever to have made much 
])rogress, the goods produced here being of a larger 
description, namely, sail and ])acking needles, together 
T\ith those used for netting and sui'gical purposes . The 

*The author has not been able to ascertain the name of 
this UP' die maker, norths place of his residence, anyptrson 
funiishir.o- such information v.ill confer a favour. 


making of knitting pins and pillow lace forming part 
of the staple trade of the village. The inhabitants of 
this place, by frequent intermarriages, may be consid- 
ered as one family ; they have a general family resem- 
blance, being decidedly Danish in their appearance ; 
they have about half-a-dozen family names, that of 
Shrimpton being the most numerous. The people are 
most of them musicians, which often leads to drinking 
and neglect of business. This place presents no appar- 
ent advantage for needle making, it being destitute of 
water power, and it is fourteen miles from Aylesbury 
which is the nearest Railway Station, the only means 
of conveyance being a London waggon, reminding a 
stranger of the picture in Dick Whittington. When 
at Long Crendon, we dilligently enquii^ed respecting 
the Darners and Greenings; those with whom we con- 
versed said that no such names had ever existed in the 
neighboui'hood. Having procured a local directory, we 
find that the only information on this subject is, that 
Lord Dormer is Lord of the Manor, and we are led to 
conclude that the name is not correctly spelt in the old 
volume afterwards referred to. The Dormers are Roman 
Catholics; the family mostly resides in Warwickshire, 
and the name of Greening may still be met with amongst 
the needle makers of that county 

The restoration of King Charles II. gave an impetus 
to the needle trade; the court and people never dressing 
more exti'avagantly than during this reign ; the king 
granted a magnificent coat of arms to the needle makers 
— the crest, an apple tree and serpent ; a shield of green 
with three needles in aline, ducally crowned; support- 
ers, a man on the right side and a woman on the left 
— the woman holds a needle m her dexter hand. The 
apple tree and serpent now forming the background of 
the arms, or may be left out, the crest being a Moor's 
head in profile, \\a'eathed about the temples and coped 
at the shoulders, and in his ears a pearl. The heraldist, 
who is seldom at a loss in searching out a genealogy 
when it is necessary, has given the shield Adam and 
Eve for supporters, and a motto, "They sewed fig leaves 
together and made themselves aprons;" the inference 


of course being that needles must liave been employed 
even at that period, and thus that it is a manufactiu-e 
which commenced almost with man himself, and is 
closely connected with the history of the human race, 
wherever gathered or scattered on the face of the earth. 

By the needle, we may infer, were made the simple 
attu-e of the first martjT, Abel, andhis mui'derer, Cain, 
he garments of righteous Xoah, and those that were 
destroyed by theilood; Joseph's coat of many colours, 
and his long fioT^-ing robes in which he made himself 
known to his brethren in Egypt, where they went buy- 
ing corn. The needle was no doubt used in forming the 
dress of the infant Moses, in which he was presented 
to Pharaoh's daughter ; by it was also made the shep- 
herd's di-ess and the royal robes of David ; and at least, 
the hem of the garment of the Holy One of Israel, for 
which the Roman soldiers cast lots ^^dthout the gates 
of Jerusalem. 

Holy Scripture tells us about the veil of the Holy of 
Holies ; and we read of the garments of the priests be- 
ing beautifully embroidered. The mother of Sisera 
says unto her maidens, "Take unto Sisera needle-work 
of divers colours on both sides." So that in some shape 
or other the use of the needle is very ancient, and no 
doubt beguiled away the hours of the maids of Juda. 
The Pagan Greeks esteemed the art of needle-vrork so 
highly, that they attributed its invention to their fa- 
vourite goddess Minerva. Homer constantly introdu- 
ces his heroines so engaged. 

The conventual institutions of the middle ages were 
admirable schools for the various productions of the 
needle — embroidery, tapestry, and the rest, Magnificent 
garments worked by the needle, were presented to 
Popes Leo III. and lY. ; and also beautiful Scriptiu-e 
subjects were worked by the needle to adorn the var- 
ious chapels in Eome. 

The daughters of kings and nobles, although care- 
fully educated in polite Literature and various accom- 
plishments, were not considered suitable for "v^ives 
unless they were good needle women. 

The garments worn by Edward the Confessor, on 


state occasions, were embroidered by bis queen Elgi- 
tba. There is now in the possession of tbe Fishmongers 
Company in London, a splendid state pall, representing 
Christ delivering the keys to Peter, the production of 
this time. Coming dowTi to the time of Mary, Queen 
of Scotland, we find that she was usually engaged in 
sewing when she sat in coimcil vnth her ministers of 
state ; and during her captivity at Hardwick Hall, 
amused her hours with works of tapestry in order to 
defend herself fi'om the chill and damp of her prison 
walls. This injured queen has left behind her needle 
work of great value and beauty. 

In Queen Anne's time, the needle seems to have 
fallen into disuse ; we find in ^'The Sjjectcdo)'^^ com- 
menting on the idleness of the ladies of that time, 
proposes certain rules to amend it ; — 

1st. That no maid shall be allowed to receive the 
addresses of her first lover, but in a suit of her own 

2nd. That before every fresh domestic she shall 
appear in a fresh stomacher. 

3rd. That no one be married till she have all do- 
mestic linen ready, and a mantle for the baby ready 

If similar rules were adopted by society 7iou', we 
should have less slavery at the milliner's shops — in 
other words, less fancy crocheting, more of the useful 
and less useless labour in the houses of the middle 
and higher classes. 

"Look at my daughter's work," we have often heard 
fond mothers exclaim, on the return of their daughter 
from school. It is very pretty, but can she make her 
own clothes, can she bake and cook, &c. ? If not it 
is worse than pretty time misspent. 

Guicardini ascribes the invention of tapestry to the 
Flemings ; though it is believed that it was practised 
by the Saracens long before its introduction into Eu- 
rope. The fii'st manufactories were at Brussels, Ant- 
werp, Lisle, and Valenciennes; the art was introduced 
into France in the reign of Francis I. , who established 
a manufactory at Fontainbleau ; and into England in 


the reign of James I. Tapestry hangings were, how- 
ever, kno^Ti many years earlier, and had reached great 
artistic perfection. 

Berlin patterns, and work properly so called, were 
not known till 1804, when the hrst pattern, on checked 
paper, was published by a print-seller in Berlin. In. 
1810, Madame Wittich, the wife of a print-seller, in 
that city, and herself a celebrated workwoman, urged 
her husband to engage in that branch of his business 
with more spirit. They are worked on canvass, either 
worsted or silk, with wool manufactured at G-otha, and 
dyed at Berlin. They were inti'oduced into England 
in 1831. Wilks, of Eegent Street, imported a large 
quantity of patterns from Berlin; and from there, and 
Paris, the best materials of silk, wool, occ; and, more- 
over, engaged the best French workers to accompany 
him to this countiy. To this individual we owe an art, 
which gives amusement to so many of our ladies ; and 
is sometimes the horror of theii- husbands and brothers. 

The needle has handed down to us many an histor- 
ical pictui-e, and iUusti-ated the life of many a saint ; 
and no one in ancient times, surpassed the celebrated 
Miss Linwood, whose collection of pictures most of us 
have seen, and who worked "The Judgment of Cain," 
after the age of seventy. 

Oiu- beloved Queen is said to be a proficient in nee- 
dle work. The needle is alike found to be the consoler 
of cares in the palace and the cottage. It is the source 
of enjoyment to thousands, and sustenance to tens of 
thousands ; and is too often the companion o f squalid 
misery — for instance the poor shii't makers, so well 
described by Hood, in his "Song of the Shii-t," who 
get 4|d. for a long day's labour ; and of those ^Tetched 
creatures who toil for the "Jew slop sellers." There 
are also the poor milliners and di'ess makers, who are 
shut out fi'om the genial breeze and sunshine, and 
almost the light of heaven, often for seven long days 
in a week, for 12, 14, and 16 aye, and 18 hom-s 
a day, in the season, up the three pair hack. Martyrs 
indeed they are to pitiless poverty and miserable pride : 
— the poor crcatui-es. 


<'We must have our dresses, and bonnets, and 
mantles, and caps, &c., by nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing, for the review and ball to morrow evening," said 
several aristocratic ladies, as they bounced from a 
splendid equipage into a milliner's shop in Eegent St., 
the other day ; and it is now three o'clock." 

"I doubt please your ladyship," said the milliner, 
**that we shall not be able to get all of them done, as 
we only received your ladyship's commands yesterday' ' 
addi-essing the eldest of them. 

"OhI lor!" exclaimed the quorum at once. 

*'But indeed you must;" said the matron of the 
group, or I shall icithdraw my patronage', for I cannot 
bear to see my daughters in the ball dresses you sent 
home last week ; therefore they must be done" 

''I shall, ladies, do my utmost to ensru-e them in 
time," said the shopkeeper. 

TVith a sad heart, even the milliner proceeds up 
stairs to the poor over-worked in the three 2)air back, 
for she knows aheady they can scarcely hold up; but 
rents are so high, taxes so great, and the patronage of 
Lady Gr. of such importance, that the cruel order must 
be obeyed, and money must be made while the sun 

"Gii'ls," said she, "Lady G.'s dresses and those for 
the young ladies must be done to night, and the car- 
riage dresses home by nine o'clock in the morning, for 
the review in the Park : so you must again work all 

The poor pale-faced slaves: one sighs, tears start 
into the eyes of another, a third murmm-s at the ukase, 
a fourth is awakened by the order from a stupor in- 
duced by previous nights and days of fatigue. 

How the needle could tell of that sad hea\y night's 
work, as it passed through the splendid materials 
which were to adorn the persons of the ladies at that 
gay festive and fashionable ball a few hours later. 

But ^^hat matters those sighs, and tears, and miu'- 
murings ; they would not be seen there ; no, but they 
were seen somewhere else, and heard also, as truly as 
the sighs and groans of the negro slaves. 


Chapter III. 

Kow oiu' little wonder-worker must say a little about 
his own orig'in. 

Many of our most useful arts haye been introduced 
into England by refugees fi'om the continent. Tbe 
oldest families of needle makers are the Blimdells, 
Eawlins,* Hewits, Alcocks, and Chatterleys. It 
appears probable they were brought into this part 
by the Thi-ogmorton family, who protected them 
in time of persecution. The Connells of Eedditch 
are from Limerick, where the family formerly car- 
ried on an extensiye needle trade. There is also a 
family of the name of Shi'impton from Long Crendon, 
in the neighbourhood of Redditch ; but at yvhat time 
needles were iii-st made in Alcester, and Studley, in 
"Warwicksliii-e, we haye no information, neither is there 
any name giyen as the inyentor or introducer of nee- 
dle maldng into that locality. It is therefore probable 
that needles haye been made in Y^ar^^•ickshil•e at a yery 
remote period. Xormandy or Germany being the most 
likely coimtries in which the inyention had its rise, and 
that the introduction of the craft into London was mere- 
ly in consequence of some improyements in this useful 
branch of industry. 

FEOM .\2s" OLD yOLr:ME. 

"Preyious to the year 1563, wii^, for making 
needles, was imported from Spain and Germany ; but 
from that time the needle makers made their own -^ire. 
Haying dra^Ti the wii-e to its proper lineness, the 
needle maker proceeded to cut it into pieces the length 
of the needles required to be made, wliich he flattened 
at one end on an an^-il, in order to form the head and 
the eye ; then the wires are placed on a sheet of iron 
over the lire to soften, after which the "v\ire is pierced 

* Wm. the last of the Ravdius in this neighbom-hood, died 
a few years ago. 


at the extreme end of the flat part on the anvil, a 
sqnare punch is hammered half throngh, which process 
is termed first eyeing. The needles are then laid on a 
leaden block, to bring out with another punch the small 
bit of steel remaining in the eye; the roughness caused 
by punching is removed from the surface of the eye 
by cutting a groove in the flat part of the wire on each 
side of the needle ; the head is next filed round, anc' 
the point formed by the same process. The needles 
are then laid on an iron pan and placed on a charcoal 
fire until they become red hot, when they are thrown 
into a basin of cold water to harden. They are next 
placed on an iron shovel and held over the fire, which 
serves to temper them and take oiF their brittleness. 
The process of hardening crooks them, so that they 
have to undergo the operation of straightning, which is 
done by placing each needle on a small anvil, and a 
few gentle taps makes it perfectly straight. The next 
process is scouring. To do this they take 12,000 nee- 
dles and range them in small heaps against each other 
on a piece of new buckram, sprinlded with emery dust 
and oil of olives, and make up in a roll well bound at 
each end. This roll was originally placed under the 
feet of the worlanen, and scoured by moving the feet 
backward and forward as he sat at work at the other 
processes ; but now the roU is placed on the polishing 
table and over it a thick plank loaded with stones, 
which men work backward and forward for two whole 
days, by which means they become bright. They are 
then taken out and washed with hot water and soap, 
and afterwards placed in a round box filled with bran, 
mioistened a little, which is then suspended in the air 
by a cord, and kept stirred until the bran and the 
needles are both dry. The needles are afterwards sor- 
ted, the poiats are all turned one way, and polished 
with an emery stone turned with a wheel. Nothing 
now remains to be done but to count them, five at a 
time, and make them up in packets of twenty-five 
needles in a paper for sale." Needles were begun and 
finished by the makers at their own homes, unassisted 
by mill power in those days; in London, at Long Cren- 


don in Biickingliamsliire ; at Alcester, and Studley, in 
Warwickshire ; and there were but few needle makers 
who were mostly very poor, although they sold their 
needles for a high price; and needles were yeiy scarce 
in some parts of England at this time. Humourous 
tales are told of Tv'here the loss of the only needle in 
th.e house has thrown the whole ^-illage into dismay. 
Such an event is not at all likely to trouble us at the 
present time ; we can obtain them in abundance, and 
hence we find that they are lost, broken and destroyed 
by dozens, without a moment's consideration, because 
they are cheap ; and every improvement for abridging 
labour in the needle making, has caused more orders 
and employed a greater quantity of people, who are 
better off, in every respect, than they were formerly. 
EngKsb needles are now preferred in foreign countries; 
and the Grerman manufacturers, especially imitate our 
labels to meet the markets. Some very extensive fac- 
tories in Prussia, never label with their own names, 
but print on tbeii- own premises labels of English firms 
as they are ordered. 

Chapteb. IY. 

About tbe year 1700, a mill worked by horses, was 
established at Studley for pointing and scouring needles; 
soon after, a mill of this kind was set up at Sambourne, 
a yillage near Studley, superintended by a family 
named Biddell, who taught Richard Hemming the art 
of needle making, the founder of the celebrated firm of 
Hemming and Sons, of Hedditch. The horse mills 
were in the course of time superseded by John Alcock, 
of Alcester, who fitted up parts of the old flour mills on 
the River Arrow for pointing and scouring needles. 
About 1750, some needle makers in this locality began 
to aspire to the dignity of Manufacturers. Mackenzie 
appears to have been the first to establish a needle 
manufactory in 'SNTiitechapel, London ; but it cannot 
be determined whether any needles were made through- 
out at his establishment. It is quite certain that 
Mackenzie was supplied with needles in an unfinished 
state by Charles Rawlins, of Alcester, which were 


finished in "WMtecliapel. Mackenzie introduced some 
improvements in the finisliing of his needles, which 
brought them into request; and Mackenzie's White- 
chapel needles obtained a pre-eminence over all other 
makes. The fame of those needles still lingers in the 
mind of the old lady, when she hears the well laiown 
cry of Whitechapel Needles, twenty-five for a penny. 
Mackenzie, although famed, became embarrassed, 
and was about to join the ConneUs of Limerick, who 
were needle makers in that City. Mackenzie was 
overtaken at Liverpool by his creditor, Chas. Rawlins, 
to whom he gave up his tools in payment of his debt. 
This was a disappointment to the Connells, and they 
removed to Redditch, in the year 1780 ; when needles 
ceased to be made in Ireland, Mackenzie returned 
to London, and was supplied with needles by John 
Shrimpton, of Long Crendon ; but the business of Ma- 
ckenzie gradually declined — ^he could not compete with 
the Alcester needle makers. One of the tools obtained 
by Rawlins was called by Mackenzie his money-spin- 
ner, which was used in burnishing the eyes of the 
needles. It gave the eye a bright appearance, after 
which they were called silver eyed. The information 
Rawlins received from Mackenzie, enabled him to 
make superior needles to any other maker ; he also 
silvered the eyes for other manufacturers, for which 
he received one shilling per thousand, or about_ten 
shillings per hour. A person named Jas. "Waterhouse, 
took Rawlins 6,000 needles to silver one dark night; 
he then placed a ladder to the window were Rawlins 
worked, and discovered the process of silvering the 
eyes, which he made public. 

Chapteb Y. 

The Alcester needle makers, jealous of the fame of 
the London needles, labelled their common qualities 
with Whitechapel labels ; by this means, and the 
greater facilities for making needles in Warwickshire, 
needles soon ceased to be made in London. The Alces- 
ter manufacturers began also to make sail and packing 
needles, a branch of the trade almost exclusively 


confiued to Long Crendon. The Long Crendon needle 
makers not being progressive, they looked with eon-- 
tempt on what they called new fangied ways of making 
needles, and continued to make them in the "good old 
way," handed do^^Ti to them through a long line of 
Greenings andShiimptons, fi-om old Christopher|Green- 
ing ; and, as a matter of course, their ti-ade declined, 
and the prosperous state of needle making in Wai'- 
wickshire atti-acted the most energetic needle makers 
from all parts, bringing with them useful contrivances 
connected with their art, and thus this manufacture 
became concentrated on the borders of the counties of 
"War-v^ick and Worcester. The fii'st Long Crendon 
needle makers who came into this locality settled at 
Alcester, and were employed by William Mascoul, a 
manufacturer in that town. About the year 1785, 
Michael Morrall who had been taught the art by 
his maternal imcle, Charles Kawlins, removed from 
Alcester to Washford Mill, Studley, and entered into 
partnership with his brother Abel, and John Archer, 
their brother in law. 

In 1790, two and a half millions of needles were 
made per week in this district one million of which 
were made by Morrall, Archer, and Morrall of WasIT- 
ford Mill, Studley. Many inprovements were made 
by this hi'm in the art of needle making. In 1793, 
Michael Morrall made some experiments in di-illing 
the eyes, which induced the firm to engage Charles 
Davis, a watchmaker of Alcester, to di-ill needles for 
them. They were introduced into the market for sale, 
but were declined in consequence of the price being so 
much higher than had been paid for them before the 
eyes were drilled. Drilling was, therefore, discontin- 
ued, the fii-m ha-sing sustained a considerable loss by 
the experiment. !Many attempts were made by this 
firm to induce the needle pointers to use respirators 
to prevent the dust entering then* lungs, but the 
workmen refused to use them ; the pointers' impression 
evidently being, if he made use of any contrivance 
which would lengthen his life, it would at the same 

+i7np fi3T»f1 fn vAflnnp fViP nmmTnf nf T^no-ps Tip nmilfl ftarn. 


Thi-ee rewards have been given by the Society of 
Arts, for the invention of machinery, as a substitute 
for manual labour in pointing needles — one to Thomas 
Wood of Berkhamstead, in 1811; one to George Prior 
of Otley, in 1813, and one to Thos. Eoberts of Dum- 
fries, in 1815. 

Needle pointing may be thus described: — we will 
suppose the workman to be seated in front of a grind- 
stone revohing at a velocity of from tv\^o to three 
thousand times per minute, he takes up from fift^^ to 
a hundred wii'es, spreads them out so that they lie 
singly (but close together,) wdth their ends perfectly 
even, and then introduces them between the palms of 
his hands, which are brought together so that the fin- 
gers on one side point tovrards the ^Tist on the other, 
the ends of the ^dres are then pressed upon the grind- 
stone, and by a slight motion of the hands to and fro, 
each ^ire is made to tm-n on its axis at the same time, 
and thus they are all pointed perfectly and beautifully 
at once, and with incredible rapidity. But whilst we 
are looking on, admiring the brilliancy of the scintil- 
lations produced by the friction, lighting up the squalid 
face of the operative, and thinking it forms a scene 
worthy of a Eembrandt, we are crossed by a reflection 
upon the deadly character of the work, — those verj- 
sparks which give a character to the scene, carry death 
in their path, for fatal experience has told us that where 
the workmen are daily exposed to the influence of the 
dust produced by the grindstones, six or seven years 
will be sufficient to terminate their existence. 

It is horrible to think that any portion of oui' fellow 
creatures should be subject to such an ordeal, but from 
the high rate of remimeration offered, and the fact that 
there are many who, fi^om loss of character, are not 
enabled to obtain employment at other branches of the 
business, no difficulty has hitherto been found in 
obtaining a sufficient number of operatives to perform 
the work. 

Chapter YI. 

About 1790, John Farr, a retired button maker, 


commenced making sail and packing needles at Alees- 
ter, by means of dies fixed in a stamp, after tke man- 
ner of making buttons. These kinds of needles -were 
also cast in moulds by AVilliam Connor, at Broomsgrove. 
At tMs time, also, James Cook commenced making 
bodkins by stamps in Stndley. Tbis may be said to 
be tbe introduction of the stamp for needle making: it 
bo\reTer made but little progi-ess and the needle makers 
had no idea of using the stamp for the smaller kinds 
of needles untill about the year 1800, when a Birming- 
ham factor, who happened to be on business at Wash- 
ford Mill, expressed his surprise that stamps and presses 
were not used in the needle making. The idea thus 
thi'o-^Ti out was immediately acted upon, and a press 
was invented and introduced in the above mill, and 
the attempt made to form 100 needles at a time ; but 
they could not succeed in making more than 35. This 
process was very complicated, vnd. was discontinued in 
consequence of the disappearance of Charles Davis, 
the person who worked the machine. He was foimd 
some time afterwards in Birmingham, making needles 
by stamp and press, and retui-ned to Alcester and made 
needles for Greorge Pardowe, of Coughton. 

The fii'm of Morrall, Archer and MorraU, received 
a large Russian order, and gave a bond to have it 
ready at a certain time, but the slow process of filing 
needles prevented them from ha^v-ing the order execu- 
ted soon enough : the bond was consequently forfeited, 
and the order countermanded. All orders for needles 
from the same source have invariably, since then, been 
sent to Germany instead of England. This firm sus- 
tained considerable losses through Napoleon over-run- 
ning Europe. Their trade had diminished because of 
the war. The sword makers in Birmingham were 
fully employed at this time, but the needle makers were 
without work. This firm (the largest in the neighbour- 
hood) stopped ; they were able to pay aU demands, but 
could not keep on the business. Two firms at Redditch, 
began by Richard Hemming and WiUiam Bartlett, 
took most of the orders for needles; and these two 

42-Mwtn T»rtt-r/\ T\/%/\v» o4* 4-V^ri Vii^o/1 rwP 4*ria 4~t*QAci IT* T? /:^rl/^■^'f /^ri 


In 1811, Abel and Micliael Morrall, sons of the 
before-named M. Morrail, commenced stamping nee- 
dles, and introduced the first eye into the needles by 
means of the stamp. What is meant by the first eye 
is an indenture half through the head of the needle. 
Abel Morrall also contrived a punch to make the eye 
of two needles at each pull of the press ; and several 
others began to use the stamp and the press ; but so 
strong is prejudice, however, that long after this plan 
had been introduced, it was found necessary to remove 
the regularity of appearance which needles so made 
presented, to make them in fact, appear like hand-made 
needles in order to sell them. 

Needle making was introduced in Hathersage, in 
1810, by Samuel Cocker, who had learned the art at 
Bank Top, in Manchester, and also worked at Chester 
for William Evans, a needle manufacturer in that City. 
Cocker had learned the old system of needle making ; 
he therefore, in 1812, engaged a person who had learned 
needle making from the Morralls at Washford Mills, 
named Robert Cook, to make needles by machinery. 
The workpeople of course came from the same part as 
R. Cook, so that they were continually leaving Hath- ■ 
ersage, and returned to their old homes in Warwick- 

R. Cook continued in Cocker's employment for nine 
years. In 1821 he commenced for himself, and the 
two firms carried on in Hathersage ; but of late years 
the trade has gradually declined. 

In 1823, Abel Morrall invented a small machine for 
filing 100 needles at a time. This was kept private, 
and answered well. It was communicated to James 
Pardowe, of Studley, by William WoodaU, who worked 
(previously to his engagement with James Pardowe) 
for Abel Morrall. 

James Pardowe was the first manufacturer who 
introduced steam power into his mill for pointing an d 
scouring needles, but water power is generally used 
when it can be had. 

The process of gilding the eyes of needles, was in- 


troduced at a mamifaetory in Exeter Eo^, Bii'ming- 
ham, by Scambler Brothers, assisted by two of Charles 
Rawlins's sons ; the idea was taken from the gilt 
button makers. Scambler obtained a patent for this 
process, but the other makers set it aside thi'ough the 
specihcation being wrongly laid for an improyement, 
instead of an ornament, to the needles. This process 
is now only used for common qualities for exportation 
and labelled, "AMiiteehapelXeedles." 

The following sad story of smart trading may cause 
uncomfortable feelings in some quarters when brought 
to recollection: — Do we not know of certain pm-chases, 
made by certain simple Africans : the purchase money 
on om* side being needles, — "TThitechapel Sharps," 
duly gilded at the head — which were found after the 
departure of the traders, to be without eyes I It is a 
sad stoiy. The Redditch needle makers who prepare 
gilt "AVhitechapel Sharps" for the African market, 
say, that they dont belieye it ; that the needles were 
of a coarse and ill-finished kind, but they were neyer 
blind, yet the testimony is so sti'ong, and the effects 
of the cheat were so serious in damaging oiu- commer- 
cial character among the sayages, that we fear there 
can haye been no mistake. If we laugh at such stories 
it is with a weeping heart, for tricks like these done 
in any corner where new races are found, are a graye 
misfortime to the whole human race. 

"We know that about thirty years ago, one firm 
sent out needles without any filing, so as to render 
them almost useless. 

Chapter YII. 

Abel Morrall had for a considerable timeentertain- 
ed the idea that needles would pass thi-oiigh the work 
with greater ease, if made without the grooye. He 
made a small assortment of them, which were intro- 
diiced into London by Edward ^lorrall, in 1 82o. These 
needles were approyed of; but the difficulty of making 
them preyented A. MorraU from proceeding with the 
grooyeless needles at that time. A few grooyeless 


facturer of Stiidley ; but they did not take with the 

The drilled-eyed needles were soon after success- 
fully brought out by William Grreen, of Astwood, who 
had seen the drills formerly used at Washford Mill, 
He was supplied with needles by Abel Morrall, and 
sold them to the tailors and other users of needles, 
who soon began to ask for the drill-eyed needles at 
the needle shops ; and thus they came into general use. 
Grreen drilled the square eyed needles with great care. 
The reader should bear in mind that the eyes are not 
made with a drill ; the punch makes the eye, and 
the intention of di'illing is to clear the eye, and prevent 
the cutting of the thread. Every mechanic knows that 
the eye ^iJl be rough after the drill, and much trouble 
is taken to clear the roughness out of the eye by some 
manufacturers, and yet after all their tTouble needles 
would be less liable to cut the thread if never di'illed 
at all. This may perhaps appear strange to the reader ; 
but let him examine a needle when magnihed, and he 
will see the sharp edges caused by drilliug. It also 
appears strange that needles were made Tvith square 
eyes, yet such is the fact; and long after drilling came 
into use, the needle makers continued to make the 
eyes with square punches, and then drill them, Abel 
Morrall was the first to use a round punch in making 
the eye of the needle. 

Needles are now drilled by children, in a careless 
manner, as they have to drill a certain quantity per 
day ; and, of course, they are more anxious about the 
green fields and shady lanes than they are in drilling 
needles — ''warranted to carry a large thread and not 
to cut in the eye or di-ag at the head." 

The method usually adopted for this piu-pose is 
what is technically called "counter-sinking." It 
amounts to tliis : a girl, seated in front of the small 
lathe in which a drill is kept running at a high speed, 
takes betw^een the forefinger and thumb of her left 
hand from thirty to forty needles, vnth the heads 
downwards, then by dexterously passing the edge of a 
knife along the eyes, causes them all to lie one way ; 


the eyes are now touclied one at a time upon tlie drills 
by which the edges of the apertiu*e are removed — then 
by a slight movement of the linger all the needles are 
turned to present the other sides of the eyes, which 
are treated in a similar manner and they are then left 
as iinished. 

Our reader will bear in mind that the object to be 
attained is a perfectly smooth eye, one that shall be 
free fi-om any biuT, in order that the thi-ead shall not 
be injured ; but let the di-ill employed be as sharp and 
perfect as it may, it will diive up a biuT before it, 
which, in this case, will be left in the centre of the 
eye, the worst position it could occupy. 

About this time an improvement was inti'oduced by 
Abner Mellen, of Redditch, which consisted of a pe- 
culiar mode of di'essing buffs used in polishing needles. 
This appears to be the only improvement made in the 
art at Redditch, which is certainly cmious when we 
consider its fame as a needle making place. The me- 
chanical part of the trade has always been done out 
of Eedditch. Xeedles were made there by hand, but 
none were made bymachinery until about the year 1828. 

The hand-workers prices were much reduced by the 
machines. Each contended that his method was the 
best ; and by the year 1830, some of the ''stampers" 
as the machine-men were called, had removed to Red- 
ditch. In the autimm of this year the hand-workers 
came to the determination of breaking all the machines 
in Redditch, which they carried into effect, and were 
proceeding to Studley, when theii* leader was taken 
into custody by Shailer, then constable of Studley. 
Eight men were lodged in prison at Worcester, and 
were sentenced by the Judge at the assizes to terms 
varying from six to eighteen months' imprisonment. 
The hand-workers saw it was hopeless to attempt to 
stop the machines, so they came to the ^ise conclusion 
to give up their old system, and learn to make needles 
by machinery ; and the two leading firms in Redditch, 
W. Hemming & Sons, and AV. Bartleet & Sons, pre- 
vailed upon the master stampers to teach them, & as far 
as possible, find them employment. The hand- workers 


were vrell satisfied with tlie change : and thus came 
to a conchision the long-disputed question between the 
old and new systems of needle making. Till within 
a few years one man in the district made needles 
by hand This individual, William Bradbury, of 
Studley, entered into an arrangement with a London 
house before the introduction of machines, to make 
needles for them as long as he should be able to work, 
and to be kept by them in constant emplojTuent at a 
stated price ; and the old firm foimd their old work- 
man his work and wages up to the time of his death, 
which happened suddenly in 1853. 

Before the introduction of, or rather before the 
making of needles by machinery generally, in 1824, 
only five millions were made in this district per week, 
while in 1847, n.fty millions were made in the same 

Many of the hand-workers who were too old to 
learn the new way of making needles ; were now em- 
ployed in soft straightening, a process common to both 
ways of making them ; but this was not to last long, 
for Abel MorraU invented a machine for straightening, 
which would do more work in one hour than could be 
done by hand in twelve. The invention was kept 
private, and it is now superseded, as the process of 
soft straightening is dispensed with. 

Chliptee YIII. 

Abel Morrall had been for several years endeavom*- 
ing to make oval-eyed needles ; the great difficultj^ 
being to prevent the eye from cutting the tlu-ead. 
At length he invented a machine for burnishing the 
eyes, and took out a patent for the same in 1839. 
He then entered into an engagement with W. Bartleet 
& Sons, to make oval-eyed needles for them, and 
burnish them with his patent machine. The other 
needle makers seeing it to be a great improvement, 
entered into a league to disprove his right to the pa- 
tent. It was the wish of the manufacturers, except 
W. Hemming, to infringe on the patent ; but he pro- 
tested against this mode of action, informing them 


that Abel Morrall, had as great a right to the patent 
as he had to any other property, until they proved to 
the satisfaction of a eoiu't of law that he had no legal 
claim to it ; and he, W. Hemming, would not infi-inge 
on any man's rights, but would A^ithdraw from the 
league immediately if any one infi'inged upon it. 
He wished them rather to prove that A. Morrall had 
no right to the patent. The case was accordingly 
brought to trial — Heroming and others, v. the Queen 
—and was decided in favoiu' of the patentees. The 
eedle makers then cndeavoiu-ed to improve on the 
patent, but did not succeed. They then obtained one 
for certain parts disclaimed before the trial of Abel 
Morrall's patent, which they termed Helix-eyed ne- 

During the pending of tliis question, trade was veiy 
bad in this district, and Abel Morrall had an offer 
from France to go to that countiy, and superintend 
some English needle makers abeady established there. 
The French government offered to increase the duty 
on English needles, which has since been done ; but 
A. Morrall preferred staying in England, and making 
an assortment of grooveless needles He sent his 
nephew, Michael T. Morrall, in 1841, to introduce 
them in Lancashii-e, Yorkshii-e, and other adjoining 
ooimties. These needles were approved of in the north 
of England, and in the spring of 1843, they were in- 
troduced into London, but M. T. Morrall could not 
induce the shopkeepers to tiy the needles, so he gave 
a quantity to the men employed in the large tailors' 
shops at the "West End," wliich soon brought them 
into demand in the trimming shops of London ; from 
which time Abel Morrall has received the general 
support of the tailors in all parts of the United Iving- 

According to the speciiication of Abel Morrall's 
patent machine, for Superseding Drilling his needles 
pass tlu'ough a process which pierces an eye nearly two 
sizes larger than any other needle, and is constructed 
on such a principle as to remove every minute angle, 
biuT, and rough edge, and to clean smootlily away 


any other cutting particle that may have been left in 
the eye of the needle, which no other operation has 
hitherto been able to effect, thereby rendering it im- 
possible to cut the thread. Morrall's patent method 
of clearing the eye may be described as follows : — a 
piece of tine steel wire is slightly roughened upon its 
surface throughout its length, which after being hard- 
ened and tempered, may be likened to a fine file ; this 
wire is run through the eyes of about a hundred needles, 
and its ends being made fast, the needles are then put 
into a violent motion. The result is ob-sT.ous. The 
metal inside the eyes is gradually worn away, until at 
the end of about an hour and a half it has become as 
smooth as a piece of glass ; sharp edges, burrs, rough- 
ness of all kinds being entirely removed from its 
vicinity; and when (the needles being nearly completed) 
this operation is repeated, it leaves the inside of the 
eye as bright as the exterior portion of the needle, 
adding one more example to the many already existing 
of the best results being obtained by the simplest 

Chaptee IX. 
In 1840, Joseph Turner, a needle manufactui-er, of 
Redditch, revived the practice of hardening needles 
in oil instead of water, as the oil did not crook 
them so much, and therefore the same labour in 
straightening them was not required. Hardening is 
effected by making the needles red hot in an oven, 
and suddenly throwing them into a tub of cold water. 
This sudden cooling of the steel makes it as brittle as 
a piece of glass. The needles will now break almost 
with a touch, indeed, in this condition, they would be 
as useless as in the soft state; but by raising their tem- 
perature to about 600 degrees, and by allowing them 
to cool gradually, the required degree of elasticity is 
given. The needles now require considerable force to 
break them, and if bent should spring into a perfectly 
straight line. The hardening and tempering processes 
are very defective at the present time, and there is 
ample scope for improvement in this department in the 
construction of an apparatus for ascertaining the heat 


of the fire instead of the hardener being left to liis 
own judgement. The crooked needles are mostly 
straightened by women at their own houses. The 
straighteners assembled at Eedditeh, and passed res- 
olutions to put down the process of hardening in oil. 
Joseph Turner was several times mobbed at lledditoh, 
and at length removed to Sti^atford-on-Avon, but 
finding that town unsuitable for needle making, he 
retui-ned to Redditch, when the public opinion had 
cooled down. All the commoner qualities of needles 
are now hardened in oil, but it is foimd not to answer 
for better goods. The straightening of needles is a 
very tedious process, and often very imperfectly per- 
formed, the marks of the hammer being fi-equently 
left on them. 

It is a singular fact that, although so many needles 
are hardened in oil, yet the straighteners all find 
constant emplojTnent. 

About this time Dr. Holland inti'oduced the fan- 
blower in connexion with the grindstone, by the 
proper application of which the dust is eftcctually 
removed from the workshop to the exterior of the 
building. Dr. Holland's fans soon came into use in 
Sheflield and Hathersage ; but no attem^it was made 
to inti-oduce them in the needle district. In 1842, A. 
Morrall made an improvement in darning needles, by 
making the eyes oval ; by this means they are much 
easier to thi-ead, and from which they derive theu- 
names, rh. "Egg-eyed Darners," the eyes are also 
biu'ni'^hed by the patent process. 

In 1844 the operative needle makers formed a 
trades' union among themselves. In 1846 the needle 
pointers "struck" for an advance of wages, although 
thoy were earning from 2£ to as high as 6£ per week. 
Only little sldU or labour is requii-ed in the process of 
pointing ; but in consequence of the needles being 
groimd on a dry stone, the dust is inhaled by the 
pointer, and settles on his lungs, so that his life is 
of short duration, seldom exceeding 35 years. 

Their wages were mostly spent in intoxicating 
liquors and other degrading practices, theii- maxim 


being *'a short life and a merry one." The pointers 
were about the most degraded part of the population 
of the district : only about one in six could write his 
own name. Benevolent men had often sought to 
refoiTu this state of things. The Society of Arts 
offered a premium for the invention of an apparatus 
which should prevent the entrance of the dust into the 
lungs of the dry grinder. In 1821, J. H. Abraham 
of Sheffield, sent to the society a model of a mouth 
guard, which was approved of and found to answer 
when used by the needle pointers ; but they refused to 
use it for no other reason than the fear that it would 
tend to reduce their wages. The poraters continued 
to act thus tni the time of the before-mentioned strike 
in 1846. The manufacturers refused to give the ad- 
vance, and the money of the pointers was at length all 
gone, so that the greatest distress prevailed amongst 

The masters now called a meeting to arrange the pri- 
ces to be paid to the poraters; for some sorts of needles 
the prices were advanced, and for others reduced. It 
was also arranged that Abel Morrall should go to 
Sheffield, to inspect the fans used by the griaders, 
and bring back a report to the needle manufactiu"ers, 
which was done, and the fans introduced into some of 
the mills that were under the control of manufacturers. 
This strike continued nearly twelve months, and the 
pointing being one of the lirst processes, before the 
strike was at an end almost all the needle makers were 
out of work, and the manufacturers' stocks were sold off. 

The pointers had not only to contend with the 
manufacturers, but the public opinion was against 
them ; the press also took up the subject, and the 
pointers at last beginning to doubt the goodness of theu' 
cause \^ished to return to their work again on the 
terms proposed by the manufacturers. Although the 
pointers began to use the fans with great reluctance, 
they soon came to approve of the new system ; as be- 
fore the introduction of these fans the workmen were 
enveloped in dust, which prevented them having glass 
■wdndows in their part of the mill — the Light being ad- 


mitted by holes witli wooden lids over them. The fans 
are constructed with a kind of funnel placed immedi- 
ately behind the grindstone, which has a metal tube 
extending to a box atthe bottom of the stone, in which 
the fan revolves, thereby producing a draught of air 
down the fimnel which takes off the particles of dust, 
leaving none to ily about the room. 

It may be said that this arrangement has been 
generally employed about 12 or 14 years, and already 
a markei change is evident in the needle pointers as 
a body, they are no longer that dissipated class they 
were, ' although much yet remains for improvement. 

Some years previous to the pointers' strike, a 
pointing machine was invented by one of the Cockers, 
a wire manufacturer of Hathersage. The machine 
could not compete -vsith the pointers in speed, there- 
fore it was not used. At the time of the strike it 
was sent to the needle manufacturers at Eedditch, 
but was purchased by the pointers and broken. 

A case of needles was sho~«Ti by Cocker & Son, of 
Hathersage, and one by Cocker & Son, of Sheffield, at 
the Great Exhibition of '51 ; but we are informed 
that no needles are made in Sheffield at the present 
time, and R. Cook, is the only needle maufacturer at 

Chapter X. 

The question has often been asked in magazines, 
why are needles made in Eedditch, when there is no 
river nor any apparent cause likely to attract needle 
making to that place l" This question may be answer- 
ed by stating, that of late years public writers have 
treated needle making too much as alledditch question, 
taking it for granted that the art of needle making 
took its rise in that place ; but it is not more than 40 
or 50 years since Eedditch was only a third rate nee- 
dle making village ; and in 1 700 a greater quantity of 
needles were made by one lii'm in Studley, than were 
produced by all the needle makers at Eedditch. 

In 1700, Studley was the principal place for needle 
making in that locality, and the trade is supposed to 


have taken its rise at Stndley : a very pretty village 
and parish, in the County of War-wick ; it is 15 miles 
Soiith of Birmingham, 4 North of Alcester, and only 
3 mil^s from Redditch. Although there is no trace 
of any river at Redditch, there is a small rapid stream, 
called the river Arrow, which takes its rise at the 
Lickey Hills, near Broomsgrove ; and when it enters^ 
TVar-svdckshire it is a good sized and useful stream. 
It passes through Studley and Alcester ; and turns a 
goodly number of old mills used in grinding and 
scorning needles. Emery stones are found in this 
stream, which are ground to powder in the mills, and 
used with oil and soft soap in scouring needles. 

These are all the processes in needle making re- 
quii'ing mill power. The wire and other necessaries 
in the art can easily be procured in Birmingham; and 
the Birmingham factors send off large quantities 
of needles, with other goods to all parts of the 
world. There may be other reasons why needles are 
made there; as all attempts to make it into a staple 
trade of any other district, have so far been unsuccess- 
ful. It is very difficult to establish a needle manufac- 
tory out of the needle district. As a general rule only 
the worst workmen can be obtained, as the others will 
not leave theii- own district, those who do, only remain 
a short time ; so that the manufacturer cannot depend 
upon liis workmen stopping with him. The people of' 
other districts do not easily learn the art — ^those who 
have tried to establish this branch of manufacture in 
Birmingham, say, that the children do not learn so 
soon to be useful in a needle manufactory as the 
natives of Redditch or Studley ; therefore if the man- 
ufactm-er succeeds in establishing himself no other 
maniifacturer will foUow him, and in all probability 
he T\dll not be able to make the best goods for a con- 
siderable time. The workmen who went from the 
needle disti-ict to France, returned long before the 
expiration of the time for which they were engaged. 
There is a needle manufactory at Chesterfield, estab- 
lished by Henry Essex, of Studley, who is now 
endeavouring to introduce needle making into the 
state of New York. 


An attempt was made about ten years ago by a 
London bouse, to establisb a needle manufactory at 
Long Crendon ; but it bas recently removed to Red- 
ditch. Xeedles bave been made at Long Crendon ever 
fiince tbe time of Cromwell ; but tbe needles made in 
tliis tillage were principally sail, packing, and surgeons' 
needles, also netting needles and knitting pins. Tbis 
txade was carried on in private bouses, in tbe same 
way in wbicb needles were generally made in tbe 
Seventeentb Century. Tbere is no river at Long 
Crendon, and it is by no means well situated for needle 
making. An attempt was once made in tbis ^-illage 
to scour tbeir needles by wind mills, but it did not 
answer. Fisb books were also made bere, and in tbe 
neigbbourbood of Eedditcb, but it is quite a seperate 
trade from needle making ; but tbey are often sold by 
needle manufactui-ers. Steel crochet books, and all 
kinds of needles for fancy work are made in tbis 
locality, by tbe workmen v>'ho came from Long Cren- 
don, and tbey supply tbe manufactiu-ers vriih them. 
These goods are made by hand in private houses. 
Abel Morrall was the first to make crochet hooks by 
stamp and press, for which a London bouse unfaiiiy 
obtained a patent. 

Chapter XL 

Most of tbe needle makers have agents in London, 
and many of the London houses have tbeir own names 
put on the needle labels ; but whatever be the names 
or addresses, it is nearly certain the needles were 
made in the neighboiu'bood of Redditch. Tbe inice 
of needles varies from ninepence per thousand and 
upwards. The common qualities are sold to Hawkers, 
who impose upon the public by representing themselves 
to be needle makers out of work. Xo respectable 
manufacturer will put his name on needles sold by this 
class, and tbe names on such labels are therefore 
fictitious. The only way to procure good needles is 
to go to some well Ioiotvti shop, and the best needles 
should not be charged more than one shilling for a 


hundred. There are in most toT^Tis shops noted for 
needles, often kept by a venerable old lady, and 
these are the best places for good needles, thimbles, 
and other odds and ends ; those who encourage 
hawkers will realise in their own experience, Mrs. 
Harris' soliloquy while threading her needle : — 

Oh ! dear a me, what needles ! well really I must saj- 
All things are sadly altered, for the worse too, since my day; 
The pins have neither heads nor points, the needles have 

no eyes, 
And there is ne'er a pair of scissors of the good old fash- 
ioned size. 
The very bodkins now are made in fine new fangled ways; 
And the good old British thimble is a dream of other days; 
I'm sure I often ponder with a kind of awful dread, 
On those bold spinning jennies that go off on their own 

head ; 
Thcsepower-loomsand odd machines, those whizzing things 

with wheels. 
That evermore keep moving, besides one really feels 
So superanuated like, and laid upon the shelf, 
"When one sees a worsted stocking get up and knit itself I 

MBS. »'OETO^^ 

A stranger about to visit this district for the pur- 
pose of seeing needles made, will do best to go free of 
engagements with any manufactm-er, as the trade is 
open to inspection throughout the needle making 
villages. The visitor should proceed byrail to Eedditch, 
thence to Alcester, and return to lledditch along the 
river side. In addition to the old mills and the 
beautiful scenery, there are antiquated mansions, ivj- 
clad churches, studded here and there, which are sure 
to interest and gratify the lover of the picturesque. 
Studley MUl belongs to the well known firm of Abel 
MorraU, which was the first to bring out the celebra- 
ted grooveless and egg-eyed needles. Near to this 
mill is the old Priory, with, its stately avenue of ehns 
and the sociable rooks ; so often found near ancient 
mansions. This Priory was founded by Lord Peter 
de Studley, in the reign of Henry II. The old Manor 
House is also near to it. Farther on is Washford 


Mill, formerly the manufactory oftlie celebrated Joliii 
and Matthew Mills, who removed to Beoley MiU, and 
were succeeded by Morrall, Archer, and MorraU, now 
used by Millward & Sons, of Redditch, for pointing 
and scouring their needles. And near to this mill 
are Ahel MorraU' s needle works, and the house of 
Wm. Bradbury, the last indi\idual engaged in needle 
making by hand. Then pass over the old forge bridge, 
from which a view of the river is very beautiful; near 
to it is Ipsley Mill, and on that eminence is the Parish 
Chm-ch and Ipsley Court, the Bii-th place of "Walter 
Savage Landor. After leaving here, a pleasant walk 
of a mile brings us to Redditch, which is delightfully 
situated on a hill on the western borders of "Worces- 
tershire. The manufacture of needles and fish-hooks is 
carried on here to a great extent. Opinion seems 
prevalent in the mind of the public, that needle 
making is exclusively confined to Redditch — such is 
not the case — the manufacture of needles is by no 
means confined to that place, but, like the Potteries of 
Staffordshire, it is the staple trade of a disti-ict, of 
which Redditch may be called the capital and Studley 
the centre. And there is scarcely a ^-illage within ten 
miles that does not contribute a share of these useful 
articles. The trade can be traced to and fro between 
Alcester and Studley. The oldest firm in Redditch is 
that of H. Millward & Sons ; it dates from the year 
1730, but at first their needles where mostly made at 
Studley. The next oldest firm in Redditch are the 
Holyoakes & Gould. The Chillingworths can-ied on 
an extensive needle trade at the old forge mill, near 
Redditch. At Studley, in addition to those other-^-ise 
mentioned, were the elder Charles Rawlins, Himiphi-ey 
Hays, and William Hewitt. At Alcester, William 
Archer, John and Joseph Scriven, and others. 

Chapter XII. 

Thus far have we given a concise history of the 
progress of needle making up to the year 1851. We 
will now say a little about the machinery of Abel 


On its becoming knowTi in the needle district that 
A. Morrall intended sending his needle machinery 
to the Exliibition, the needle makers remonstrated 
strongly against it, fearing, as they said, that foreign- 
ers would take the trade away from the country ; but 
when they found him determined they offered him a 
large sum of money to refrain. This he declined, and 
still persisted in exhibiting his machinery. Thi'eats 
were then held out that Ms property would be des- 
troyed. Many letters passed between Abel Morrall 
and the Executive Committee of the Great Exhibition; 
the Committee being as anxious that needle maldng 
should be shewn, as the needle makers were that it 
should not ; yet up to the day before the opening of the 
Exhibition, A. Morrall was undecided whether to 
work his machinery or not, however, at last he con- 
cluded to work it ; and from the opening to the close, 
needle making attracted a large share of public 
attention. A. Morrall exhibited needle makiiig as 
done by hand, in addition to the machinery, 200, 000 
needles were given away to visitors in the month of 
May. Many of the nobility examined the machinery 
— the Duke of Wellington and the Duchess of Gloces- 
ter were frequent visitors, — a single needle was made 
for the Prince of Wales at his own special request, 
vdiich he took away. On the 16th. June, the Queen, 
Prince Albert, and suite inspected the machinery. 
The Queen examined each process, and was pleased 
not only to express her satisfaction, but to accept 
from the inventor specimens of needles in their differ- 
ent stages of manufacture. The Queen asked many 
questions respecting the progress of this useful art in 
England — as to the nimiber of people employed before 
machinerj^ was introduced — the quantity of needles 
made per week, — the number of persons now employ- 
ed, and needles made. The Queen was much pleased 
to find that the introduction of machinery had caused 
more emplojTuent for the people, and ordered the 
questions and answers to be entered in a book. 

The Duchess of Kent afterwards requested some 
specimens the same as presented to the Queen. 


Needle making was equally attractiye to all classes, 
a great number of the working people of Lancasliire, 
and Yorkslm-e brought home, at least, one needle 
made at the Exhibition. 

Chaptee XIII. 

Abel Morrall's machinery is thus described in the 
catalogue : — 

"jIoekall, a., Studley Works, Warwickshire, 
Inyentor and Manufacturer of machinery for maldng 
needles, viz., a stamp for making the heads of needles; 
a press, mth double punch, for making the eyes of two 
needles at one time ; machinery for filing the burr oif 
needles, caused by the stamping; a di-ill; and a model 
of A. Morrall's patent machine, which burnishes the 
eyes of 12,000 needles at one time, and it is computed 
that a good workman may caiTy a hundred thousand 
needles per day thi'ough this stage, whilst in that of 
eyeing, in which formerly only 400 or 500 per hour 
could be completed — 4,000 per hour are now easily 
produced. In the filing, 500 an hour was under the 
old system, a fair amount of work, now, 40,000 in 
a day of ten hours is the estimated quantity, with the 
additional advantage of true making. 


On the Case, — Class No. 22, — and it was honourably 

The needle maker commences with the wire, which 
has been previously prepared for him, in the form of 
rolls about three feet in diameter— the size of the 
wire of course depending upon the kind of needles to 
be made. The workman takes two or three roUs 
together (in aU three or foui- hundred wires) and vdth 
a pair of large shears cuts thi'ough the whole. He 
then continues to cut ofi" the -wires, so that each may 
be long enough for two needles, — as in the emjraviny^ 
Pac/e 1 

The \\Tres being cut, have next to be straightened, 
since each one possesses the same degree of ciu-vature 


as the roll from wliich it is cut. This is eifected 
rapidly and perfectly, by placing from ten to fifteen 
thousand into two iron rings, which stand parallel 
with each other, and after having made the whole red 
hot in an oven, rubbing the wires to and fro by a bar 
of iron, which is partly curved, by which means each 
wire is made to rotate upon its axis, and thus its 
highest parts are pressed upon until it is broiight 
to a straight line — the whole operation not lasting 
more than two or three minutes. The wires are now 
ready for pointing, bearing in mind that they are each 
long enough for two needles, we can readily under- 
stand that it will be necessary to point both ends, in 
fact they are cut ofi' this length in a great measure for 
the convenience of holding them. The grinder then 
takes a mimber of these pieces in his hand, and points 
them, by causing them to rotate on a dry grindstone. 
They are now washed, then dried over a fire, and 
placed singly between two dies, which flattens the 
wire in the middle, and stamps the shapes of the heads 
of two needles, with indentations for the eyes, and also 
to mark the place of separation. The wires thus pre- 
pared, are taken to a hand press, and by means of a 
double pimch, both the eyes of the twin needles are 
made at one time. The next process is gone through 
by children : each child takes two wires in its hand, 
on which it places about fifty double needles, to facil- 
itate the process of filing, which is done by fastening 
the wired needles down on a strip of wood, by means 
of steel springs, worked by a treadle under the foot of 
the workman, who moves a iile over the needles until 
the projections caused by stamping are removed. 
They are now turned and the other side is filed, then 
placed in a kind of hand- vice, and the upper part of 
the double needles are moved backwards and forwards 
between the finger and thumb until they are broken 
into two. The tops of the heads are then filed round, 
and the roughness removed from the inside of the eye. 
The needles are next hardened, by being ranged in 
quantities on iron plates, and placed in a furnace until 
they are red hot, when they are taken out and emptied 


into a copper, containing oil or water, and then tem- 
pered by being placed over a slow fire and allowed to cool 
gradually. The crooked needles are now straightened 
by a small hammer, one at a time, on an anrU., they 
are then gathered together, and mixed with oil, soft 
soap, and emery powder, wrapped in loose canvas, and 
placed in a kind of mangle worked by mill power, to 
be scoured. They are often taken out, washed, and 
redressed. This process takes about a week, and when 
done the needles are washed in hot water, and dried in 
saw dust. "Winnowing and sorting follow. They are 
now spread out in a line on a piece of wood, the heads 
projecting over one side, under which is placed a red 
hot iron, to soften that part of the needle previous to 
the eyes being bui-nished, to prevent them cutting the 
thread. The points are then set and the needles polish- 
ed, being held in the hand after the manner of pointing, 
and rotating on a wheel covered ^vith prepared leather, 
which is called a "BufiV They are now coiuited, 5 
at a time, and wrapped in theu' well known papers, 
labelled, and tied up, 10 packets of 25 needles, in a lot, 
for sale. About 1 00 millions of needles are made every 
week in the needle district, and the best qualities pass 
thi'ough upwards of seventj' processes. One pound's 
worth of steel is said to produce about 70 £ worth of 
needles, and there are at the present time, 100 manu- 
factm-ers, and 10,000 people dependant on needle ma- 
king for theii' daily bread. 

"It is somewhat remarkable that the modern needle 
should have been produced in as primitive a manner 
as it is possible to imagine, till -within the last 40 or 50 
years, machinery, properly so called, not having been 
introduced for its manufacture till \\dthin the period 
named. Still more sti'ange is it that the whole of the 
improvements made should have been eftected by the 
Morralls, although so many are engaged in the trade." 
Professor Crises Lecture on needle making. 

Chapter XIY. 

There were twelve exhibitors of needles, three from 
Redditch, two fi'om Studley, one from Birmingham, 

OF ]o:edle maexn'g. SS' 

two from Sheffield, one from Hathersage, one from 
Long Crendon, and two from Aix~la Chapelle. Eight 
medals were awarded for cases containing needles, fish- 
hooks and other things : two exhibitors of fish-hooks 
from Redditch, one of whom received a medal. One 
case of needles from Studley honoiu-ably mentioned. 

The folloTsdng needle maniifactm-ers' cases are placed 
in the Exhibition Museum, Kensington Palace, London: 
— Abel Morrall, Stiidley, William Bartleet & Son, and 
Gr. Boulton & Son, Redditch. 

Abel Morrall' s machine attracted considerable atten- 
tion in the Polytechnic Institution, Regent Street, 
London. The dies and punch used at the Exhibition, 
together with samples of needles, are now placed in 
the Museiun, at Peel Park, Salford. 

"With respect to the award of medals for needles, 
we may safely infer that the juries knew little of their 
qualities, as each needle was fastened at the bottom of 
the case, covered over with glass, and not opened by the 
juiy. William Dyce, reporter to the jury of Class 22, 
said in answer to a letter sent to him by A. Morrall, 
that the jury of Class 22 did not award him a medal 
for no other reason than that they considered liim a 
greater exhibitor in class 6 ; and it was through some 
mistake he had not a medal awarded for his needles, 
and the juries will do aU they can in their report to 
rectify this mistake, which was afterwards done by the 
juiies, declaring Abel Morrall the inventor of the 
grooveless needles : and those are the kind of needles 
for which medals were awarded. 

Abel Morrall addressed an appeal to the public, in 
the Times of November 8th., 1851, which, up to the 
present time, has not been controverted ; and although 
he had not a medal, A. Morrall is satisfied with the 
public's decision, and was therefore induced to become 
an exhibitor at the Dublin Exhibition, and his ma- 
chinery, being at full work duiing the whole time of 
the Exhibition, formed one of the most attractive 
inventions ; and daily contributed to the pleasure of 
thousands fi'om aU parts. 

On its return from Dublin it was shewn at an Ex - 


hibition at Oldham, wliere it was equally attractive. 
Here it was that the first Egg Eyed sewing needles 
were sold. 

J". Eimmer & Son of Aleester, and H. Millward & 
Sons, of Redditch, exMbited needles in glass eases, 
at the United States Exhibition. Honourable men- 
lion was made for Eimmer & Sons needles, and a 
medal was awarded to Millward & Sons, for their gold 
eyed grooveless needles. 

''It has, by this time, become pretty generally felt, 
that the 'council medals' 'prize medals,' and 'honoura- 
ble mentions,' of 1851, are commercially of very little 
importance, however pleasant they may be to the 
recipients. "We buy our knives of this cutler, and 
our pianofortes of that maker, and our dinner plates 
of this potter, not because these manufacturers hold 
prize medals, but because the articles are good, and 
worth the money paid for them." — Chamber's Journal. 

When Abel Morrall returned home from the Exhi- 
bition, after inspecting some improvements made in 
his patent machine, for burnishing the eyes of needles, 
he began to carry out some ideas he entertained with 
respect to fluted sail needles, and elastic steel needles 
for shoemaker's use, which, latter were intended to su- 
persede bristles ; and they being at that time very high 
inprice, shoemakers and dealers in bristles were anxious 
for a substitute. In a short time all that were made 
by A. Morrall were sold, but shoemakers did not find 
them so pliable as bristles ; and were not disposed to 
lose time in adapting themselves to the use of needles, 
so long as they could obtain the more elastic bristle. 
It is only by training boys to its use, that the needle 
can be introduced into this business. Formerly bristles 
were used by sadlers and harness makers, now needles 
are used almost exclusively. 

In 1852, the author suggested to Abel Morrall the 
-desirability of making Egg Eyed Sewing Needles, ob- 
ser\ing that they would be useful to persons of defeo- 
tive sight. During the discussion as to making 
them, a letter was received from Lady Lifford, asking 
.if he had any sewing needles, with the Egg Eye ; aa 


she was mucL. pleased with his egg eyed darners. 
(Xo. 1, the Egg eyed darning needle, the eye of 
which is thi-ee sizes larger than the common make No. 
2. No. 3, the Egg ej^ed sewing needle used in the 
Manchester, Liverpool, and other Schools for the 
blind.*) In 1853, a few were made and sent out as 
"samples ; and many letters of approval were received, 
including one from the noble Lady just mentioned. 
By the year 1855, they became generally known, and 
they have nearly superseded the round eye : a marked 
progress since the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1856, 
James Cottrill, of Studley, took out a patent for ma- 
chinery, to supersede hand labour in filing needles and 
other things. One is in constant use in Scotland, 
:filing tubes at the Caledonian "Works. In 1857, he also 
took out a patent for grooving or fluting the sides of 
sail needles, in the form of a bayonet blade ; this how- 
ever has made but little progress. The same person 
obtained a third patent in 1861 , for an invention which 
he calls a foiu* sided sail needle ; this in our opinion is 
a decided improvement, and deserves the gratitude 
and patronage of sail makers. James Cottrill justly 
describes it thus : — "This needle is superior to all 
others, in consequence of its having four equal sides 
instead of three unequal sides; a smaller hole is made in 
the canvas, allowing the thread to pass with facility, 
the eye being in a right line with two of its ^^ Angles,''^ 
In making, and mending tarpawling for covering lug- 
gage trains, these needles are found very advan- 
tageous, as they make smaller holes than the ordinary 

Edward MorraU, (a nephew of A. M.) has invented 
a most useful machine for the needle trade. "We are 
not permitted to describe it until the patent is secured, 
— it ■^dll be shewn at A. Morrall's stall, Class VI B., 
in the International Exhibition. 

Some years ago, A. Morrall began to use a Trade 
Mark, which soon became noted and was therefore 
greatly imitated ; it no longer distinguished his goods 
:from others. In 1861, he had new labels engraved 
and entered at Stationers' Hall, adapting the crest of 
* See Diagram, page 1 


the Morralls as Ids Trade Mark, namely, a Demi 
Griffin. We perceive by the Eedditch newspaper 
that a deputation of needle manufacturers is gone to 
London to give evidence before a Committee of the 
House of Commons, on the subject of Trade Marks. 
The manufacturers are now about to use Trade Marks, 
and it is desii-able that there should be a decided 
difference between each. 

Sewing machines have within a few years made 
rapid advances in this country. It is already used for 
producing articles greatly varying both in material 
and form. To what extent they may ultimately affect 
labour, either that of needle producers or users, re- 
mains to be seen, — perhaps neither so much as might 
be expected. The sewing machine is quite useless 
without a good needle. If the inventors and makers 
of sewing machines would adopt a uniformity of nee- 
dles without a thick shoulder, it would be advan- 
tageous to the makers and users of such needles. We 
suggest to persons when ordering se^nng machine 
needles, to be very explicit, and if possible, to send 
a pattern. 


The length and substance of a needle should be 

proportioned to the particular work on which it is used. 

The Sharps are those usually called 'Se-^dng needles.' 

Short Sharps are suited for rather coarser work. 

This length of needle was first introduced by A. Mor- 

rail, for Tailors, but is often used for household work. 
The Ground downs are also for tailors, and are shorter 
than the Short Sharps. 

The Betweens are still shorter than the Grround 
downs, half a size thicker, and with stronger points ; 
they are useful for strong sheetings, stay-making, and 

The Blunts are half a size thicker and a size shorter 
than Betweens, and have still stronger points, being 
suited for the heaviest work, such as bed-ticks, shoe- 
binding, stay-making &c. The larger sizes of Betu'eehs 
and Blunts, do for sewing carpets, and the smaller for 
binding hats. 

The Straw are suited for millinery and light work, 
and they are often made double length, for sewing fents 
in Manchester. 

The following is a form for ordering needles : — 
Sharps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

3 to 7 4 to 8 to 9 5 to 10 6 to 10 7 to 11 
Short 123456789 10 
Ground Downs 123456789 10 4 to 7 
Betweens 123456789 10 
Blunts 1 23 45 6789 10 
Straw 123456789 10 
Harness 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 
Darners 1 23456 789 10 3to74to85to9 
Double Long 16 17 18 2 3 4 5 6 7 &c 
Steel Netting Needles 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
- — Rug ditto. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
Stay Casing Needles 14 15 16 17 18" 19 20 
Roimd Bodkins 14 15 16 17 18 in assorted g-rosses. 

Sewing needles are sold by the thousand, and the 
letter "m" is generally used In ordering needles thus, 

Sharps, No. 7 ; the quantity should be placed over th« 
number. Large needles are ordered by the gross. 

Abel Morrall will send, on application, printed 
forms for ordering all kinds of needles and thimbles. 

It may be interesting and amusing to conclude with 
^'The Husband's Complaint," and the * 'Wife's An- 
swer" respecting fancy work :— 



I hate the name of German wool in all its colours bright; 
Of chairs and stools in fancy work I hate the very sight ; 
The shawls and slippers that I've seen, the ottomans and bagg, 
Sooner than wear a stitch on me, I'd walk the streets in rags. 

I've heard of wives too musical — too talkative — too quiet; 
Of scolding and of gaming wives, and those too fend of riot, 
But yet of all the errors known, which to the women fall; 
For ever doing fancy work, I think exceeds them all. 

The other day when I went home no dinner was for me, 
I asked my wife the reason, she answered one, two, three ; 
I told her I was hungry and stamped upon the floor, 
She never even looked at me, but mutter* d one green more. 

Of coiu'se she made me angry, — she didn't care for that, 
But chatters while I talk to her, a white and then a black, 
Seven green's and then a purple — just hold your tongue 

my dear, 
You really do annoy me so, I've made a wrong stitch here. 

And as for conversation with the eternal frame, 

I speak to her of fifty things she answers just the same ! 

'Tis '-yes love, o red's and there a black, I quite agree with 


'Tve done this wrong, 7, 8, 9, 10, an orange, then a blue. 

If any lady comes to tea, her bag ia first surveyed. 
And if the pattern pleases her a copy there is made ; 
She stares too at the gentlemen, and when I ask her why, 
*Tis; *• my love, the pattern of his waiscoat struck my eye. 

And if to walk I'm inclined ('tis seldom I go out,) 
At every worsted shop she sees, oh how she stares about ; 
And there 'tis, "Oh! I must go in, that pattern is so rare, 
''That group of flowers is just the thing I wanted for my chair 

Besides, the things she makes are such touch-me not affaiis, 
I dare not even use a screen — a stool — and as for chairs ! 
'Twas only yesterday I put my youngest boy on one, 
And tintil then, I never Imew my wife had such a tongue 


Alas for my dear 'little ones, they dare not move or speak: 
'Tis, "Tom be quiet, put down that bag, Harriet wbere's 

your feet ? 
Maria standing on that stool, — it "was not made for use, 
"Be silent all — three green's, one red. and then a puce. 

Ah! the misery of a working wife, with fancy work run wild, 
And hands that never do aught else for husband or for child; 
Oui" clothes are rent and minus strings, my house is in disor- 

And all because my lady wife has taken to embroider. 

I'll put my children out to school — I'll go across the sea, 
My wife's so full of fancy work, I amsiu'e she won't missme; 
E'en while I write she still keeps on her one, two, three and 

'Tis past all bearing, on my word I'll not endure it more. 


Well to be sure, I never did, why what a fuss you make, 
I'H first explain myself, my dear, a little for yoiu* sake : 
You seem to think this worsted work is all the ladies do, 
A very great mistake of yours, so I'll enlighten you. 

I need not count, for luckily, I'm filling up just now. 

So listen, dear, and drive away those wrinkles from your 

brow : — 
When you are in your study, love, as still as any mouse. 
You cannot think the lots of things I do about the house. 

This morning after breakfast I heard the children spell, 

And I'm teaching little Mary to gather and to fell ; 

I paid my washing bill, and then I went to see 

What contents in the larder for our dinner there might be. 

I've finished Tommy's pinafore, and fed the green canary, 
I've hemmed a duster, & I've made a bonnet cap for Mary 
I've practised that concerto thing, you thought so very fine;; 
I've written all the notes, as well to ask our friends to dine. 

I'ye filledmy vaaes with fresh flowers, so fine they are & fall, 
And after that — I will confess — I sorted out my wool ; 
I've read that paper setting forth the sweet confiding trust, 
Husbands should cherish for their wives, and think it yery 

I've settled all my weeklj^ bills, and balanced my accounts, 
With a little lot of German wool to make up the amounts, 
Ah! now at last my reasoiiing eonviucrS you I know, 
That pleasant smile — and yes, my love — it does becom* 
you so ; 

Besides, to tell the truth, all the worsted work 1 do, 
My bag, my cushions k my chairs, art- in compliment to you, 
I made a set of night-shirts, and did you not declare 
That the rending of the calico was more than you could bear. 

I knit some lambs wool stockings, and you kicked up such a 

And ask'd how soon my ladj'ship was going to have the gout! 
So now, my dear, entii'ply to please you I declare, 
I've worked this splendid arabesque upon my vesper chair. 

Two hearth-rugs and an ottoman, seven chairs, & after that 
1 hope to do some groups of flowers, and a handsome car- 
riage mat. 
Enough of banter; yet believe one wordbefore we pai-t, — * 
The rtst perhaps was fable; but this is from the heart, — 
The loving wife, right cheerfully, obeys her husband still, 
And will ever lay aside her frame to meet his lordly will. 


Vert, three needles in fesse, each ducaUy crowned or. 

CREST,— A Moor's head couped at the shoulders, 
in profile, ppr. wreathed about the temples or. and gu. 
vested round the shoulders or. in his ear a pearh 

SUPPOETERS,— Dexter, a man; Sinister, a woman, 
both ppr. each wreathed round the waist with leaves of 
the last ; in the woman's hand a needle or. the suppor- 
ters are commonly called Adam and Eve. 

H. BETDroH-, Printer, 55, Faulkner-st., Manchester. 




^^ --^^4r^^ 



AliOIcA, CASHMimi, 

SILK, &c., 

"An Article brought out by a Manufacturer of 
Macclesfitrld, rriust prove a great convenience to 
our industrious wives and daughter?. The want 
of handy mending material for mi/ Stockings, (so 
long complained '.f,) is now supplied in all re- 
quisite colours and qiialities by thtse Bugle 

Supplied Wholesale by Leading Houses in London 
and Manchester. Eetail by the Berlin Wool & 
Smallware Depots throughout the Kingdom. 

N.B.— Trade Mark, Tlie Bugle, Entered at 
Stationers' Hall. 

M111)]L1 MAHlBi" AMMio 

Michael Morhall is informed that a Family, 
named Quant, have used his name to forward 
their interests with Manufactui'ers & Merchants 
in obtaining Situations of trust, without his 
Authority. One of this Family held the Office 
of Book-keeper at 7, High Street, Manchester. 
He was discharged and a character refused by 
Michael Morrall. 

Q> 5^ K & ^s. ^ ajNij ^ 






L. ARDERN begs to intimate that 
his well-known "Extra Quality Crochet 
Cotton," may be had Wholesale from the 
Principal Warehouses in London, Manchester, 
&c., &c., and Retail from all first-class Haber- 
■dashers throughout the United Kingdom. 





Sold by aU Chandlers, Grocers, &c,, «S:c. 
WOTHERSPOON & CO., Glasgow and Loxdox. 


^^ ^^5 <^S 



This Needle is superior to all others, in consequence of 
its lia^ang FOUR EQUAL SIDES, instead of tin-ee un- 
equal ones ; it makes a smaller hole in the canvas, and al- 
lows the thread to pass with greater facility'-, the Eye be - 
iug in a right line with two of its angles. 

It has been fully tested by the fii'st Sail Makers in Liv- 
ea^ool and Glasgow, and pronounced by them to bo *'in- 
fimtely superior to all others as a Seaming Needle," for 
tbe reasons above stated, admitting of a very bt autifal 
finish to the work. 

To the workman the superiority of this Needle cannot be 
too well known,, .its tlat sides at once adapting them- 
selves to the fingers, saving the workman much pain, and 
it is not liable to jump. It is also invalualtle to Tent 
Makers as no wet can ever follow this needle. 




AU kinds of Scotcli and ¥elsli Knitted Hosiery. 






Yoluntary ProMbition of tlie Lip-or Traffic. 

It is not proposed by tMs measure to ask for an impe- 
rial enactment there and then prohibiting the traffic in in- 
toxicating liquors, but simply to secure a reference of the 
question to public opiaion. Thus the law would not oper- 
ate •vrithiii such districts as were not wishful to secure its 
benefits, but would only take effect as to the lesults of a 
direct expression of a preponderatiug public opinion. 

Cf)c preamble of tljc Uill sets fotll) tljat.. 

""Whereas the common sale of intoxieatingliquors is a fruitful source 
"of crime, immn-ality, pauperism, dlsea^e, insanity, aud premature 
"death; \^hcr«by not only ihe individuals wh-ipive way t« drinkiag 
'< habits are fjiunaedinto misery, but giifvous wrong is done to the per- 
*'sons and proj erty of Her Majestj 's subjects nt large, and the puMic rateu 
"endtaxe* are gr'atly aiigniented ; and whereas it is right and expedi- 
^'ent toC'T.ter uj onthe ratepayers of cities, boroughs, parishes, and 
"township"! ibe po ver to prohibit sach common sale as* aforesaid — B© 
" it therefore "uacted, &c. 

The bill itself provides that, on application of any 
district, the votes of the ratepayers shall be taken as to 
the propriety of adopting the provisions of the act ; but 
that a majority of at least two thirds of the votes taken 
shall be necessary in order to decide that question in the 

The act itself would when so adopted, prohibit within 
that district all traffic in intoxicating liquor for common 
purposes, but would leave in the hands of the justices the 
power to appoint an agent who should sell for purposes 
declared legal by the act. 

"^Theirof.oal of the Grrnd Allisnre well deserves a careful consid- 
eration--thf pLm ot erjabling r certain proporiion of the inhabitant* in 
every di.-t'ict--a prop- rtion considerably ai> ve the commercial major- 
ity-- to give the mwgistraies au honly for p'acing the district under a 
general r^i rei-sive act, passed with such modifications as, according to 
the act's privi>ioMs, maybe allowed in the peculiar local lirctimetanees.' 
Lord Beotigham's Address at iha Social ^cience Congress, Glasgow. 

United Kingdom Alliance Offices, 41, John Dalton-st., 
Manchester, and 335, Strand, London. 



ITear Matlock Bridge, Station, 



Formerly at Mr. Smedley's Establishment, 
Terms:— Board, Lodging, and Baths, 2s. 6d. per day. 

The mild system of Water Treatment is carried 
out according to MR. SMEDLEY'S Books, which may 
be had at each Establishment. 

Matlock Bank can scarcely be surpassed for its 
Health Restoring Qualities. Each Establishment com- 
mands Fine Prospects, and at the same time are well shel- 
tered fi'om the Xorth and East Winds. 



The Original Managers at Mr. Smedleys beg to 
return their grateful thanks for the patronage they have 
received and respectfully solicit a continuance of the same 


Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Davis return thanks for past 
favors and beg to inform their fi-it-nds that since last sum- 
mer they have greatly increased their accommodation by ad- 
ding the adjoining premises. 


who beg respectfully to announce to the Public that they 
treat Patients on the same plans as practised at Mr. Smed- 



54, Church Street, MANCHESTER: 

N.B. Orders by Post well and Promptly Executed.. 

from SIX SHILLINGS & upwards, Carriage Free. 
HoMCEOPATHic GUIDE to the use of the Medicines 
One Shilling Per Box. ..J. BURY, Homoeopathic 


Parties visiting this Hotel {to tvhich a large addition has 
been made) will find in it a Home; the Parlours are Spa 
cious, the Bedrooms Excellent. Established in > 841. 

RS. MULLET'S Commercial Boarding House, 
22, Broad-st., TJnioa-st., Aberdeen. 



Terms, 21s. to 25/6 per week. Prospectuses on application. 

Proprietor.— Mr. Charles Rowland. 

ILLIAM lEWIN, Stationer, Printer, Engraver, 
and Litbogi-aphpr, 5, Princess-st, MANCHESTEEi. 


Eeturns thanks for past favours, and begs to inform her 
friends that she has removed from Ash Cottage to 
more convenient premises 

No, 3, Rock Side Terrace. 







Use Brook's Patent Glace for Upper Thread, and 
Brook's Pri^e Six" Coid (soft) for Under Thread, in 200 
or 500 yards, "White, Black, and Colors. 

The Glace Thread -will be found an excellent sub- 
stitute for Silk, and being made from the best quality of 
Cotton, it retains its strength in -slashing, and is not in- 
jured by the friction of the needle. 

In the Inteexational Exhibition, Class 18, 
Messrs. Brook & Bros, exhibit a very handsome case of 
Cotton Threads, Crochet and Embroidering Cottons,. in 
various processes of manufactiure. 

They also exhibit in the Machinery department, 
Class 7a, i)t motion, a Self-acting Sewing Cotton 
"Winding Machine, a new and most interesting invention 
securing the correct lengths, and performing an exti'aor- 
dinary amount of excellent work. 

20, Cannon Street, West, LONDON. 

2, Port Street, MANCHESTER. 

76, Castle Street, , BRISTOL. 

25, Cochrane Street, GLASGOW. 

117, BouLEYART de Sevastopol PARIS. 

32, Vesey Street, NEW YORK. 

4, Custom House Square, MONTREAL. 


Will on receipt of 13 PENNY STAMPS forward post free 
in a neat morocco case, 100 of Abel Morrall's celebrated 
Egg-eyed-Needles. "Warranted to carry a Large Thread, 
not .to Cut in the Eye, nor Drag at the Head." 

HEGREAT SECRET in obtaining GOOD TEA is to 
purchase it at a proper Tea Establishment. The Best 
Places in Manchester are the Three Tea Establishments of 
WM. SATTERTHWAITE— the one on Piccadilly, 
nearly opposite the Queen's Hotel; the other at the top of 
Oldham Street, comer of Swan Street; and the third, 160, 
Deansgate, M anchester. Wholesale buyers, who can pay 

ready money, W'll receive every attention o" calling at he "^ holesale 
Deparfmpnt, 53, Piccadilly. The best and purest COCOA is Satter- 
thwai e'p Genuine 'J rinidad. 


Manufacturer by Patent Machinery of 



MOKRAT L'S Thimbles have l.-ig been highly approved of. They 
are -tamped wiih a number which enal les cusomirs (o select the 
Sizps they require, to complete their as>ortment; they also bear the 
name of t!'e manufacturer. He stronaiy recommend* his Tailnrs' Best 
Steel ThimMes ;TheLadie<' Best Vt hi e Metal Thimbles, ccmbine tbe 
durability of st«- el with the liahtnes- a id other advantages cf Sterling 
Silver, tueir biightness increases with the length of wear. 


ABEL 'MORRALL'S Needles can he obtained in most towns in the 
United Kingdom. The most convenient town or place to procure 
them may be ascertained by writing to 

miK&M.A'miLi HOBBiilLIL^^ 



WILLIAM SHIERS and Co., Manufactiu-ers and Im- 
porters of Paper-hangings. An extensive stock of the 
Newest designs. Oil Painttrs and Upholsterers Articles, 
"Wholesale and Eetail and for Exportation. 
3 and 5, DEANSGATE. 

S. nOTVLEY ^ & On., 

Manufacturers & Agents of 



72, Eensliaw Street, Stretford Uoad, Mancliester. 

TEETH — EDWAhD mi ES^ the Cicy ol Lonrl n D -ntist, 15, 
Liverpool ST., Bi-hopgate Ch'irch. cnnti ue? ihe use fth* Best 
"Workmansh p in f-et- ot Ti eth and sarh as cannot bi'txcelled io 
London. Amsrica, or Paris, adnptiufr it to pvry I'atcni pnd to all hi« 
New Inventions, <fe Improvements, the result ff 3 ' ypurs actire prac-- 
tiee, at charges as m .derate ^s pure materials admi;, some ofwhichare 
less than ha fihose u«ua!ly ma'le, — Moreexplaine ii'i i^.dward Miles' 
abridged v.'ork —Best Gdd Stoppinsr, Whiie,— 15 L-verrrool otreet. 




Sold by Grocers. &e. in Pacliets at Id. avA upwards, 


West Ciiff House, Cold Bath Road. 

Victoria Commercial Tem.perance Hotel, 
14, Eishopgate St., Leeds, 

(Next door to trie Scarborough Hotel.) 
Commercial Gentlemen and Visitors will finrJ every com- 
fort and attention. J. ANDREW, Proprietor. 


l^='Turn to the right as you leave the Railway Station, A 
Five Minutes Walk will bring 3-ou to WALL'S 

Temperance Hotel, 25, SiddeFs Road. 


Crown Temperance, Commercial, and Eamily, 


Passengeis by walking up the steps facing the Central 
Station, will reach the Hotel in One xMinute. 

No 8, Clayton Street, (West.) 

E. P. BELL, Proprietor. 


illiam Hodgson, Photographic Artist, 
Matlock Bridge, Derbyshire. 


TO BE LET, A Large and Commodioxis Stock Eoom, 
also Xwo Smaller Ones, suitable for Offices, (witli fix- 
tui'es,) either together or separately. Apply on the prem- 
ises, 7, High Street, Manchester. 






Hosier & General Haberdasher, 



Graduated HEADS, and patent four-square points in 
all sizes. 

Morrall's Wareliouse, 7. Higli Street, Eancliester. 

ROOMS, 5, Dautzic-st., Withy Grove, Manchester* 
Hot Joints, Pastry, &c. from 12 to 3 o'clock.— Tea & Coffee 
on the shortest notice.— Dinners 6|d Pastiy 2d. extra. 


Shops supplied with every description of 



Grreen Clotli Boxes for Keeping Stock, 


Estimates for Large or Small quantiiies t.ent to all parts of the Country, 

To Manufactiirers, Chemists, Ironmongers, Wholesale 
Grocers, Druggists, &c. 

Clotli Luggage Secure Dii'ection Labels, 




Send for Prices. Stationers Supplied. 



Are preferred by Tail<r.<;, Fhre binders, Stay IMftkers, and even by 
some Lndies to his Ci-lebrated E^.-Eyed Needles, and are nold by the 
principal dealers who will forward 100 posi free for 13 stamps. 

ABEL MORR.ll.L'S Harness and SaddJtrs' Needles 
Quilting and Circular Needles, Egg Eyed Looping 
Needles, Upholsterers' & other needles are soid RetaQ in 
Manchester, by 






Victofia-st, foo? of Holborn-hill, nenr the Mptioi^litan Railway 
Stitiot.. — Terin«mnde/ate -viz :--Bi^'d fromls. 6fi, Bn-akfast o lea 
frninl>.3d, A'tendancp^d.ier da> .---'1 E-TllNK tMALy.-- « ehave 
great pl*-asure in re'-rimnif ndins Ptarr's Hutel, as being a perfectly < lean 
Comfortablt', and well-conducted Kstablishm-nt, and intend making 
it our ' Home" when in London." — Handel Cosi-ham, E~q. Bris ol; 
Cyrus and Jnmes Clark, Esq<. Streer, 'Ihos Whittaker, Esq. Scarboro; 
Alex Graham, Esq. London He el Glasgow; J. Bowme, Temprance 
Hotel Oldht m Street. Ma' cheste..^— N.B — In order to secure accom- 
odtttion it is advisable to write a few days in advance. 



H XJ L Ij , 


?v>ar the Railway Station and Landing Place of the Packets, 
Daily .News, Hull Advt-rti-er, Railway Tim:' lahles. 
Correct Informatou risj ecting Pac ets, Coaches, and the Railways. 
Cho] s, Steaks, Tea and ('> ffee at any hour. 


Manufacturers of every description of Fish Hooks & Fish- 
ing Tackle.— Specimens shewn in Class 22, Birmingham 

Court at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham. Merchants and 

Dealers supplied on the B. st Terms. 



A Sample Packet sent free by Post for Eight Starops. 

A Choice assortment of ^EEDLE BOOKS, BOXE», &c. 

Registered Crochet IIook.s, with coiled Handlts. 
Ready Threaded Needle and Cotton Box. (Eegistered) 
Needle Points for Cabinet Makers. 




iron, for a Coaury i^esidewce.... width between posts, 9orl0feet 
apply 7, High-st., Manchester. 



Hosiers & Haberdashers, 
The oldest Establishment in Liverpool for Abel Morrall's 

Needles. Every description constantlv on hand. 
Eenshaw House, 24, Eexsha^v Street, LIVERPOOL. 

xomm EraBT & bqk, 

15, Piccadilly, Manchester. 



passe* m neatness, in srrcngtli, 
in cheapness, and retains it« 
Tirtnes in all elimfctes. It haa 
stood the te»t of time sind iH 
all ouarters of the world-— 
Sold b'j CheinisU, dc, and by 
the Wholesale Houses.— A 
Sample Bottle per Post, free for 
14 Stamps, from the Proprietor, 
StrarCgevags, Manchetttr. 



Tiles, Steel, and Table KiiiYes, 


G^. ^W, KIHBY'S 


4, Market Street, 


JOHN MAT HER, dealer in Derbyshire Spar Ornaments 
Dob Lane, Matlock Bank. 


ORRALL'S BROTLIERS, Coopers Sc Basket Makers, 
8, Park Street, Leamington. 






In its Original Simplicity. 



Sold by JOHN SYKE^, Wooldale, near Hudder*.fleld ; W. IBWIM 
5, Prince»8-st., and M. Moirall^ 7, High-St., Mancheeter. 



2, 3, 6 & 9 CORD SEWING COTTON, 


Cr0cljet aub Guipure €atim, 

Crocliet, Guipure, Lacet, Tatting, Applique; & Embroidery "Work^ 

Jflaurbljiitg i; piteit S^bnn;trs, 




G. D. G. 

Des aiguilles sans cannelure et a trou oval; 

On garantit que ces aiguilles peuyent contenir un fil 
assez gros, qu'elles ne le coupent pas a Fendi-oit du trou, 
et que la tete passe a trayers le tissu sans jamais 

Les aiguilles a coudre et a broder de M. Moeball 
faites du meilleur acier, dont la trempe est elastique, 
sont d'un poll des j)lns pur; les trous ont la forme 
ovale et sont faeilement enfiles meme par les personnes 
d'un age ayance. Com me elles sont perforees et polies 
en meme temps au moyen de la Macliine Breyetee de 
M. Abel Moerall, qui a pour objet de remplacer 
I'ancienne maniere de percer les trous; elles ne present- 
nent consequemment aucune asperite et font qu'il est 
impossible que les trous coupent le fil. 

On pent voir fonotionner les principaux precedes 
de cette fabrication dans la saUe destinee aux Macliines, 
au Palais de Cristal, de Sydenham, et au Exposition 
International, Classe 7, B., Londres. 

ediantillous, en boites, de 1-25. 

Maison de Commerce: 4, Gresham Street, City, vis- 
a-vis Aldermanbury, Londres. Fabrique: Studley, 
Comte de Warwick, Angleterre. Ces aiguilles se 
vendent chez toiis les Marchands de Nouveautes, 
Merciers, etc. 





SS A SI W 3F ^ © ^ 1^ 3E H 3^, 


Patent &rooYeless, & Egg-Eyed Needles. 



















Cottrill's Patent Eoui' Square Sail Needles. 

Studley MiUs, Warwickshire. 

The process of Needle Making shown at 
tional Exhibition, and at the Crystal Pala(